DRM/en

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The Digital Rights Management are the access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit the use of digital media or digital devices. DRM procedures share the following characteristics:

• Detect who accesses each work, when and under which conditions, and report this information to the work provider.

• Authorize or deny access to the work, according to the conditions chosen by the provider of the work.

• When access is granted, it is under stringent conditions set by the provider of the work, regardless of the rights that the law gives the author or the public.

DRM overlap, to some extent, with the software copy protection. Although the term DRM is usually applied to creative media. The use of DRM is quite controversial: Those in favor argue that it is necessary for preventing unauthorized duplication of works and they ensure continuous income. On the other hand, those who are against it, especially the FSF, argue that copyright holders try to restrict the use of copyrighted material even in ways not covered by existing laws.

How do they affect Free Software?

DRM implementations are in clear contradiction with the ideals of free software. Laws such as DMCA and DADVSI not only criminalize those who elude DRM, but also allow content providers forbid writing programs which read these materials. Providers thus impose which software should be used to access its contents. Access to digital content under DRM using software modified by the user is not allowed, and typically requires the use of proprietary operating systems. This hampers the production and dissemination of free software.

Which rights are affected?

Some rights are violated using DRM: • The right to free access to culture.

• The right to privacy: As a third will have information on what, how and when we use any digital content.

• The right to make copies under particular circumstances.

• The making of derivative works, which is common in cultural creation. This includes translations, performing remixes, and other kinds of expression.

• Excludes the use of quotations for those working in literary criticism, film, music, and even politics.

• The fair use, that is the adaptation for education or for people with disabilities who need to make copies of works in order to access them (such as translations into Braille or the use of audio-books).

• When a work becomes part of the public domain restrictions will still be there, forbidding access and copying of materials that could be copied legally.

• The presumption of innocence: With the technical measures of restricting access and copying, the citizens are declared guilty before the contrary is proved, denying them a number of rights in a preventive way, without having committed any crime.

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